April 20, 2021

Why did Pakistan Not Attack Kashmir in 1962 . But Did so in1965

A Question in Quora
Why didn't Pakistan try to wrest Kashmir from India in 1962 but tried to do so in 1965?
My answer
Very interesting question 

In 1962 Pakistan was not politically / diplomatically prepared to militarily annex Kashmir .

In fact Pakistan was even prepared to help India to jointly face the Chinese threat ,

When Nehru rejected Pakistan's offer of 'joint defence' pact against China
Ayub Khan was wary of expansionism by Communist China

Further , Pakistan was then an Alliance partner of USA .USA had directed Pakistan not to open another front against India .

US stopped Pakistan from attacking 'vulnerable' India in 62: Ex-CIA official | The Express Tribune
According to Bruce Reidel, US sought assurances from Ayub Khan Pakistan would not take advantage of Sino-India war


India , Pakistan , Chinese relations changed very dramatically after 1962

Pakistan under the guidance of Bhutto struck an anti deal with China whereby , inter alia , Pakistan gifted 5000 sq km plus of POK-i.e. Shaksgam Valley to China .

By 1965 , Pakistan had China as an ally .

Kennedy was gone in 1963 .

Also , most important for Pakistan’s 1965 Indian attack decision Nehru had also died in 1964.

Pakistan though that the new Indian Prime Minister , Lal Bahadur Shastri was a weak and indecisive leader and lacked stature especially when compared to Nehru.

PM Lal Bahadur Shastri ‘s weak personality image was further bolstered by PM Shastri ‘s , sort of appeasement of Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch crisis in early 1965

Shastri did not want the war
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri was driven to war with Pakistan in 1965. He did not want any confrontation because he saw in it the ruin for both countries. He even allowed Pakistan to have the upper hand in the Rann of Kutch by limiting the full-scale action of the military.Shastri was visibly

Most important factor for Pakistan ‘s decision to attack India in Kashmir in1965 was that after her defeat in 1962 India had started expanding exponentially her armed forces both in numbers and equipment.

Pakistan felt that if delayed further Pakistan , which was militarily superior to India till then , would never be able to wrest Kashmir from India.

So ,Pakistan attacked Kashmir calculating that a weak Indian PM would keep the war limited to Kashmir.

But PM Shastri with totally unexpected resolve , bravery and decisiveness .He counter attacked Pakistan across the International Border in Punjab forcing Pakistan to withdraw its forces from the Kashmir front and to , later , accept a ceasefire .

Launch of offensive towards Lahore in 1965



Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal said...

Lal Bahadur Shastri 's little known repartee to President Gen . Ayub Khan of Pakistan.
Gen Ayub was a hurly burly , Sandhurst trained Pathan. Ayub Khan used to feel very superior to Lal Bahadur Shastri Ji 's height.
Lal Bahadur Shastri ( around Indo- Pak War of 1965 ) -
"Gen Ayub Khan Kahate Hein Ki Yeh Hindustani Kya Ladengey. Yeh Log To Dhoti Pehentey Hain.
"Mein Ayub Khan Ko Kehta Hoon - Phir Kya Agar Hum Dhoti Pehentey Hain. MERE JARNAIL TO PATLOON DALATEY HAIN. "

Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal said...

Credit Paramvir Singh
Another of him : Hamare pakistani bhai kehte thay ke nashta Amritsar mein aur dupahar ka khana Dilli mein hoga. Magar hum to abhi datun karne nikle thay, jo Lahore pahunch gaye" . Just in lighter vein though.No acrimony intended.

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